In this video we will see how a coal based thermal power plant generates electricity in a detailed step-by-step manner. This video will give you a basic idea of the operation of steam based thermal power plant.
A thermal power station is a power plant in which heat energy is converted to electric power.
Here we will discuss the functions of the main components of thermal power plant like boiler, steam turbine, generator or alternator and transformer.
1. Now at first pulverized coal, delivered from transport barges, is mixed with air and blown into the boiler furnace through nozzles. It is burned at temperature above 2000 Fahrenheit.
2. The boiler is a rectangular furnace about 50 ft on a side and 130 ft tall. Its walls are made of a web of high pressure steel tubes about 2.3 inches in diameter. Here the Chemical energy in coal becomes heat energy when the coal is burned in the furnace.
3. As the water in the boiler circulates through tubes, absorbs heat and changes into steam. Then the steam is separated from the water inside a drum at the top of the furnace. The saturated steam is introduced into superheat pendant tubes that hang in the hottest part of the combustion gases as they exit the furnace. Here the steam is superheated to 1,000 Fahrenheit to prepare it for the turbine.
4. Steam turbine resembles a giant fan with hundreds of blades. High capacity power plants use different stages of steam turbines, such as high pressure turbine, intermidiate pressure turbine & low pressure turbine.
5. In order to turn the steam turbine you have to supply a high pressure and temperature steam at the inlet of the turbine as the turbine absorbs energy from the high energy fluid, its pressure and temperature dropped toward the outlet.
6. Now the high pressure steam is discharged against the fan-like turbine blade and the turbine starts rotating. Thus the heat energy is converted into kinetic energy. The steam turns the turbine blades, which turns the shaft, which is connected to the generator.
7. The generator is where mechanical energy converted into electrical energy. Now as the shafts of the turbine and generator are mechanically coupled, so as the turbine turns, it spins the generator shaft which mounted with giant electromagnets.
8. The rotating magnet, called the rotor turns within a stationary set of conductors wound in coils on an iron core, called the stator. The field cuts across the conductors, generating an induced EMF (electromotive force) according to the Faraday's law of electromagnetism, as the mechanical input causes the rotor to turn. Thus the mechanical energy in the turbine is changed to electrical energy in generator.
9. As it is cheaper to generate at a relative lower voltage and then step it up for transmission to reduce transmission loss. The generated electrical energy leaves the generator and goes to a step-up transformer, where the voltage is raised to transmission voltage.
10. Most of the powers generating plants are designed to operate at the generation voltage level 16.5 kV and 21 kV. But for Power transmission, voltage level 220 kV, 400 kV and 765 kV are used.
Thermal power plants help meet almost half of the world’s power demand. In this video, we have seen with Animation that how electricity generated in thermal power plant. We also discuss the function of different components of thermal power plant.
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