Can research launch political movements, affect public policy and change the course of history? Social science may often seem concerned with pointless or frivolous topics of interest mostly to boring academics, but bad research had the potential to seriously affect the world. In the realm of video games, researchers have been trying to identify causal links between gameplay and aggression and ultimately violence for decades to no avail, yet many believe games lead to violent behavior. Even President Trump seems to think so, but why? Perhaps in part because of researchers publishing bad data that potentially skew the facts about games and media in their political favor, such as it seems one man, Dr Bushman, seems to have been doing, with a 3rd article of his now retracted and a 4th heavily edited. Let's take a look at the ramifications of bad research and some various issues of publication, including those pesky paywalls.
Original Video on Games and Violence:
Dr. Layman's Video on Accessing Articles:
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Anderson, C. A., Shibuya, A., Ihori, N., Swing, E. L., Bushman, B. J., Sakamoto, A. & Saleem, M., Rothstein, H.R., & Saleem, M. (2010). Violent video game effects on aggression, empathy, and prosocial behavior in eastern and western countries: a meta-analytic review.
Bushman, B. J., Rothstein, H. R., & Anderson, C. A. (2010). Much ado about something: Violent video game effects and a school of red herring: Reply to Ferguson and Kilburn (2010).
Benjamin, A. J., Jr., & Bushman, B.J. (2016). The weapons priming effect. Current Opinion in Psychology, Volume 12, 2016, 45-4
Benjamin, A. J., Jr., Kepes, S., & Bushman, B. J. (2017).RETRACTED: Effects of weapons on aggressive thoughts, angry feelings, hostile appraisals, and aggressive behavior: A meta-analytic review of the weapons effect literature. Personality and Social Psychology Review.
Çetin, Y., Wai, J., Altay, C., & Bushman B. J. (2016). RETRACTED: Effects of violent media on verbal task performance in gifted and general cohort children. Gifted Child Quarterly, 60(4), 279-287.
Douglas, K. S., Guy, L. S., & Hart, S. D. (2009). Psychosis as a risk factor for violence to others: a meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 135(5), 679.
Fazel, S., Gulati, G., Linsell, L., Geddes, J. R., & Grann, M. (2009). Schizophrenia and violence: systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS Medicine, 6(8), e1000120.
Ferguson, C. J. (2007a). Evidence for publication bias in video game violence effects literature: A meta-analytic review. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 12, 470 – 482.
Ferguson, C. J. (2007b). The good, the bad and the ugly: A meta-analytic review of positive and negative effects of violent video games. Psychiatric Quarterly, 78, 309 –316
Ferguson, C. J., & Kilburn, J. (2010). Much ado about nothing: the misestimation and overinterpretation of violent video game effects in eastern and western nations: comment on Anderson et al.(2010).
Han, D. H., Hwang, J. W., & Renshaw, P. F. (2011). Bupropion sustained release treatment decreases craving for video games and cue-induced brain activity in patients with Internet video game addiction. Experimental and Clinical Pharmacology, 18(4), 297-304.
Joyal, C., Dubreucq, J.-L., Gendron, C., & Millaud, F. (2007). Major Mental Disorders and Violence: A Critical Update. Current Psychiatry Reviews, 3(1), 33–50.
Larivière V, Haustein S, Mongeon P (2015) The Oligopoly of Academic Publishers in the Digital Era. PLoS ONE 10(6).
Wakefield, A. J., Murch, S. H., Anthony, A., Linnell, J., Casson, D. M., Malik, M., ... & Valentine, A. (1998). RETRACTED: Ileal-lymphoid-nodular hyperplasia, non-specific colitis, and pervasive developmental disorder in children. Lancet, 351 (9103), 637-641.
Verhulst, B., Eaves, L. J., & Hatemi, P. K. (2012). Correlation not causation: The relationship between personality traits and political ideologies. American Journal of Political Science, 56(1), 34-51.